Firstly, if there is a thread that was started and has discussion on these topics, by all means, share. I searched archives but searching something specific about gold standard becomes very overwhelming on this forum, and to find a particular response is difficult.
1) How would the US's current situation differ if all aspects of dropping the gold standard and any related events remained the same, but there never was a central bank? Or simply where would we be if congress was in charge of our fiat currency? That obviously is a bit contradicting since the Constitution says "no bills of credit", but there clearly are five-hundred other things that we do that are prohibited by the Constitution.
2) The biggest argument I ever tend to hear against the gold standard usually is something along the lines of "a gold standard can burden growth when it runs short (in the sense that there will be demand but no supply)" or something like "well then South Africa will have control over the US's wealth by controlling the gold supply." How do you argue against that? I personally find it difficult to argue since intuitively both statements make sense, but I think such issues are unrealistic. So would the availability of gold actually burden growth (excluding the idea that it'll never run out - in this particular question)?