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Come Out of Babylon

Discussion in 'U.S. Constitution & Law' started by Bigjon, Sep 13, 2016.



  1. Bigjon

    Bigjon Silver Member Silver Miner Site Supporter ++

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    Come Out of Babylon
    Posted on September 13, 2016by David Robinson
    [​IMG] Judge Anna von Retiz

    I have tried and tried and tried to get these points across: there are two governments in America, one British, one American. There are two populaces in America—- one ofBritish Subjects, one of American State nationals.
    .
    This is the way it is and it is the way it has always been. For all those who want proof in the founding documents go to www.freesovereignandindependent.com and look at what the Definitive Treaty of Peace (1783) which ended the Revolutionary War reveals: two populations. One population known as “free, sovereign, and independent people of the United States” and the other known as “inhabitants”—- British Subjects left here to provide “essential government services.”
    .
    Look at Article IV of the actual Constitution. There it is again, the provision of essential government services by federal employees.
    .
    The original United States (Trading Company) which provided these nineteen enumerated services was bankrupted by Lincoln in 1863. That original company operated on the land and under the law of the land, but it was operated by British Subjects called “United States Citizens” even then.
    .
    When the open hostilities of the War of Secession ended on the land jurisdiction, the filthy British Monarchs continued to wage war in the international jurisdiction of the sea against the “rebels” and they continued to use the fanciful excuse that there were still “rebels” to prosecute as a smoke screen to attack and prosecute and fleece and defraud average, law-abiding, peaceful Americans for the next 150 years.
    .
    Most people would stare at you as if you were crazy if you suggested that the American Civil War is ongoing even now, but so it is and has been. We have been at constant “war” since 1863, because these British buggers and their sycophants acting as the“Congress” — a Board of Directors of the corporations they have fostered as successors to the original constitution’s commercial services contract— have never declared an official peace treaty ending the Civil War.
    .
    You can look all day long for a month of Sundays for a Peace Treaty ending the Civil War and you will find that what I am telling you is true. The Civil War never officially ended and the British rats have used that as an excuse to attack and plunder innocent American civilians ever since.
    .
    After Lincoln bankrupted the United States (Trading Company) the Brits and their supporters in this country spawned a new governmental services corporation called, “The United States of America, Inc.” which ran from 1868 to 1907 when it was purchased by a consortium of mostly European banks calling themselves the “Federal Reserve”.
    .
    The Federal Reserve acquired “The United States of America, Inc.” and bankrupted it in turn, giving rise to the First World War. They changed the name slightly and booted up another version calling it “the United States of America, Inc.” and ran it into the ground and bankrupted it in 1933, causing the Second World War.
    .
    During the Second World War and using it as an excuse, pleading the need to “harness” the vast resources of America and the American People “for the War Effort” the Brits and their Cronies in America —- all British Subjects, all “United States Citizens” or “citizens of the United States”, conspired to set up a system to enslave Americans and use our assets as collateral backing their debts.
    .
    Here are a couple good examples of it.
    .
    During the Second World War, patriotic Americans were urged to donate a portion of their earnings for the “War Effort”—- and millions upon millions dutifully signed up and paid the “Victory Tax”a “voluntarily income tax” on their earnings. This tax was supposed to automatically sunset (cease) upon the end of hostilities, but the legislation creating it had no specific ending date.
    .
    As a result, when the war ended in 1945, the tax system kept right on chugging and neither the British King nor his loyal Subjects running the UNITED STATES, INC. bothered to put an end date on the “Victory Tax” and release all those patriotic Americans from the obligation to keep on paying. Instead, they renamed it the “Federal Income Tax” and booted up the IRS to become the most ferocious private Bill Collection Agency on earth, which deliberately gave people the idea that the IRS was associated with our lawful government, instead of any “War Effort”, and used it to jail and fine and tax millions of Americans who never owed them a dime.
    .
    Worse yet was the means devised to enforce all this rot, including the draft, which was all predicated on the totally false idea that all the Americans knowingly and willingly and voluntarily agreed to be British Subjects —- “United States Citizens” or “citizens of the United States”.
    .
    They mischaracterized and deliberately, self-interestedly misidentified hundreds of millions of innocent Americans as British Subjects—- a crime of political genocide recognized by the Geneva Conventions as a death penalty war crime. They used various means of false registrations and disinformation to coerce the victims and especially the victim’s Mothers to provide false statements to the effect that all these Americans were “United States Citizens” or “citizens of the United States”instead of being what they are and always were: Americans known as American State nationals—- Ohioans, Virginians, Californians, Texans, Wisconsinites, Mainers, and so on.
    .
    It has been the biggest human trafficking crime in world history, resulting in the press ganging of hundreds of millions of Americans over the course of one hundred and fifty years. . . . It has been the biggest tax crime, the biggest racketeering and identity theft scheme, the biggest counterfeiting racket, the biggest credit fraud scheme, the biggest unlawful conversion theft, the biggest securities fraud, and the most tortuous copyright infringement ever conceived.
    .
    And it was brought to you by the Lords of the Admiralty, the British Monarchs, and the “United States Citizens” responsible for running the “federal government”—- a corporation operated out of the District of Columbia for the purpose of providing the States of America with essential governmental services under commercial services contract.
    .
    Now, some people, mainly British Subjects—foreign politicians masquerading as if they “represent” you, and Bar Attorneys up to their ears in it—-would like to present this circumstance as a political issue, but it isn’t a political issue. It’s a matter of crimepracticed against their employers, benefactors, and allies for 150 years and it is finally coming to an end.
    .
    Now that you have this firmly in mind I want to raise a flag of caution and promote a bit of understanding. All this harm to us has been allowed under The Constitution—-except for the semantic deceits and constructive frauds that have been used as a means to promote and prolong this circumstance. Under The Constitution, the “Congress” has been allowed to exist and to operate its affairs as plenary oligarchs operating the government of the District of Columbia however they see fit.
    .
    It is a foreign corporate government with respect to us. And instead of operating it as it always should have been, the British Monarchs have instead acted in Breach of Trust and treaty and used it to wage war and practice crime and fraud against us and our lawful government. The British Government — operating a backdoor fraud scheme against us under the pretense of being our friends and Allies — has done us more harm than any enemy entering through the front door could ever do, and the members of “Congress” — misrepresenting themselves as our “representatives” and fiduciary agents — have done still more harm to millions of innocent, peaceful, trusting Americans who have fought their wars and paid their debts since 1863.
    .
    What you are looking at is a mammoth international crime syndicate, fostered by international banks and European trading companies. The British Government started it and milked it all the way through the Second World War, but in 1944, the French Government had to get in on the act, too. The French Government chartered the IMF, and the IMF chartered the UNITED STATES, INC., yet another “assumed successor” to the commercial services contract to provide the nineteen enumerated services required by the original Constitution.
    .
    Here is the Take Home Lesson for today: none of this, absolutely none of it, has anything to do with you or with your lawful government owed the land jurisdiction of the United States. The name of this country is “States of America” and our fifty nations on the land hold the land jurisdiction in trust for the people known variously as Californians and New Yorkers and North Dakotans and so on. The States of America are alive and well and bringing claim forward as the Priority Creditors of the foreign bankrupt corporations.
    .
    Stand up and be counted as members of the free, sovereign, and independent people of theunited States of America, living people not corporations, American State nationals, not “United States Citizens” and not “citizens of the United States”. Send yourActs of Expatriation to the State Secretary of State and the Attorney General making it clear that you do not voluntarily assume any such foreign political status and that you have been mischaracterized and defrauded.
    .
     
  2. Bigjon

    Bigjon Silver Member Silver Miner Site Supporter ++

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    In the name of the most holy and undivided Trinity.

    It having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the hearts of the most serene and most potent Prince George the Third, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, duke of Brunswick and Lunebourg, arch-treasurer and prince elector of the Holy Roman Empire etc., and of the United States of America, to forget all past misunderstandings and differences that have unhappily interrupted the good correspondence and friendship which they mutually wish to restore, and to establish such a beneficial and satisfactory intercourse , between the two countries upon the ground of reciprocal advantages and mutual convenience as may promote and secure to both perpetual peace and harmony; and having for this desirable end already laid the foundation of peace and reconciliation by the Provisional Articles signed at Paris on the 30th of November 1782, by the commissioners empowered on each part, which articles were agreed to be inserted in and constitute the Treaty of Peace proposed to be concluded between the Crown of Great Britain and the said United States, but which treaty was not to be concluded until terms of peace should be agreed upon between Great Britain and France and his Britannic Majesty should be ready to conclude such treaty accordingly; and the treaty between Great Britain and France having since been concluded, his Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, in order to carry into full effect the Provisional Articles above mentioned, according to the tenor thereof, have constituted and appointed, that is to say his Britannic Majesty on his part, David Hartley, Esqr., member of the Parliament of Great Britain, and the said United States on their part, John Adams, Esqr., late a commissioner of the United States of America at the court of Versailles, late delegate in Congress from the state of Massachusetts, and chief justice of the said state, and minister plenipotentiary of the said United States to their high mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands; Benjamin Franklin, Esqr., late delegate in Congress from the state of Pennsylvania, president of the convention of the said state, and minister plenipotentiary from the United States of America at the court of Versailles; John Jay, Esqr., late president of Congress and chief justice of the state of New York, and minister plenipotentiary from the said United States at the court of Madrid; to be plenipotentiaries for the concluding and signing the present definitive treaty; who after having reciprocally communicated their respective full powers have agreed upon and confirmed the following articles.

    Article 1:

    His Brittanic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, viz., New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free sovereign and independent states, that he treats with them as such, and for himself, his heirs, and successors, relinquishes all claims to the government, propriety, and territorial rights of the same and every part thereof.

    Article 2:

    And that all disputes which might arise in future on the subject of the boundaries of the said United States may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are and shall be their boundaries, viz.; from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, viz., that angle which is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of St. Croix River to the highlands; along the said highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River; thence down along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude; from thence by a line due west on said latitude until it strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of said river into Lake Ontario; through the middle of said lake until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and Lake Erie; thence along the middle of said communication into Lake Erie, through the middle of said lake until it arrives at the water communication between that lake and Lake Huron; thence along the middle of said water communication into Lake Huron, thence through the middle of said lake to the water communication between that lake and Lake Superior; thence through Lake Superior northward of the Isles Royal and Phelipeaux to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of said Long Lake and the water communication between it and the Lake of the Woods, to the said Lake of the Woods; thence through the said lake to the most northwesternmost point thereof, and from thence on a due west course to the river Mississippi; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the said river Mississippi until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of north latitude, South, by a line to be drawn due east from the determination of the line last mentioned in the latitude of thirty-one degrees of the equator, to the middle of the river Apalachicola or Catahouche; thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint River, thence straight to the head of Saint Mary's River; and thence down along the middle of Saint Mary's River to the Atlantic Ocean; east, by a line to be drawn along the middle of the river Saint Croix, from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its source, and from its source directly north to the aforesaid highlands which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean from those which fall into the river Saint Lawrence; comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part and East Florida on the other shall, respectively, touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such islands as now are or heretofore have been within the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia.


    Article 3:

    It is agreed that the people of the United States shall continue to enjoy unmolested the right to take fish of every kind on the Grand Bank and on all the other banks of Newfoundland, also in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and at all other places in the sea, where the inhabitants of both countries used at any time heretofore to fish. And also that the inhabitants of the United States shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on such part of the coast of Newfoundland as British fishermen shall use, (but not to dry or cure the same on that island) and also on the coasts, bays and creeks of all other of his Brittanic Majesty's dominions in America; and that the American fishermen shall have liberty to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled bays, harbors, and creeks of Nova Scotia, Magdalen Islands, and Labrador, so long as the same shall remain unsettled, but so soon as the same or either of them shall be settled, it shall not be lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish at such settlement without a previous agreement for that purpose with the inhabitants, proprietors, or possessors of the ground.


    Article 4:

    It is agreed that creditors on either side shall meet with no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted.



    Article 5:

    It is agreed that Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the legislatures of the respective states to provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects; and also of the estates, rights, and properties of persons resident in districts in the possession on his Majesty's arms and who have not borne arms against the said United States. And that persons of any other decription shall have free liberty to go to any part or parts of any of the thirteen United States and therein to remain twelve months unmolested in their endeavors to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights, and properties as may have been confiscated; and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states a reconsideration and revision of all acts or laws regarding the premises, so as to render the said laws or acts perfectly consistent not only with justice and equity but with that spirit of conciliation which on the return of the blessings of peace should universally prevail. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states that the estates, rights, and properties, of such last mentioned persons shall be restored to them, they refunding to any persons who may be now in possession the bona fide price (where any has been given) which such persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said lands, rights, or properties since the confiscation. And it is agreed that all persons who have any interest in confiscated lands, either by debts, marriage settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution of their just rights.



    Article 6:

    That there shall be no future confiscations made nor any prosecutions commenced against any person or persons for, or by reason of, the part which he or they may have taken in the present war, and that no person shall on that account suffer any future loss or damage, either in his person, liberty, or property; and that those who may be in confinement on such charges at the time of the ratification of the treaty in America shall be immediately set at liberty, and the prosecutions so commenced be discontinued.



    Article 7:

    There shall be a firm and perpetual peace between his Brittanic Majesty and the said states, and between the subjects of the one and the citizens of the other, wherefore all hostilities both by sea and land shall from henceforth cease. All prisoners on both sides shall be set at liberty, and his Brittanic Majesty shall with all convenient speed, and without causing any destruction, or carrying away any Negroes or other property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his armies, garrisons, and fleets from the said United States, and from every post, place, and harbor within the same; leaving in all fortifications, the American artilery that may be therein; and shall also order and cause all archives, records, deeds, and papers belonging to any of the said states, or their citizens, which in the course of the war may have fallen into the hands of his officers, to be forthwith restored and delivered to the proper states and persons to whom they belong.



    Article 8:

    The navigation of the river Mississippi, from its source to the ocean, shall forever remain free and open to the subjects of Great Britain and the citizens of the United States.



    Article 9:

    In case it should so happen that any place or territory belonging to Great Britain or to the United States should have been conquered by the arms of either from the other before the arrival of the said Provisional Articles in America, it is agreed that the same shall be restored without difficulty and without requiring any compensation.



    Article 10:

    The solemn ratifications of the present treaty expedited in good and due form shall be exchanged between the contracting parties in the space of six months or sooner, if possible, to be computed from the day of the signatures of the present treaty. In witness whereof we the undersigned, their ministers plenipotentiary, have in their name and in virtue of our full powers, signed with our hands the present definitive treaty and caused the seals of our arms to be affixed thereto.

    Done at Paris, this third day of September in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three.

    D. HARTLEY (SEAL)
    JOHN ADAMS (SEAL)
    B. FRANKLIN (SEAL)
    JOHN JAY (SEAL)

    Source:
    Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America.
    Edited by Hunter Miller
    Volume 2
    Documents 1-40 : 1776-1818
    Washington : Government Printing Office, 1931
     
    Last edited: Sep 13, 2016
  3. Bigjon

    Bigjon Silver Member Silver Miner Site Supporter ++

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    BY AUTHORITY OF CONGRESS.

    THE
    Public Statures At Large

    of the
    UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

    FROM THE
    ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN 1789, TO MARCH 3, 1845.
    ARRANGED IN CHRONOLOGICAL :ORDER.
    WITH
    REFERENCES 1'0 THE MATTER OF EACH ACT AND TO THE SUBSEQUENT ACTS
    ON THE SAME SUBJECT,
    AND COPIOUS NOTES OF THE DECISIONS

    of the
    Courts Of The United States

    CONSTRUING THOSE ACTS, AND UPON THE SUBJECTS OF THE LAWS.

    WITH AN INDEX TO TIlE CONTENTS OF EACH VOLUME,
    AND A lo'ULL GENERAL INDEX TO THE WHOLE WORK,
    IN THE CONCLUDING VOLUME. TOGETHER WITH ~be 'IDeclatatfon of Jlnllepenllence, tbe adfcIcs of (!J:onfellttatfon, nnll tbe (!J:onsUtutrolt of tbe t!IlnftclJ .statu; AND ALSO, TABLES, IN THE r,AST VOLUME, CONTAINING LISTS OF THE ACTS RELATING TO THE JUDICIARY, IMPOSTS AND TONNAGE, THE PUBLIC LANDS, ETC.
    EDITED BY RIC H A R D PET E R S, ESQ.,
    COUNSELLOR AT LAW.

    The rights and lntcrest of the Un1ted states
    In the stereotype plates from which thls work
    Is printed, are hereby recognised. acknowledged, and declared by the pubUshers, accordinp-to f-he pro~·if'.on5 of the joInt resolution ot CongTelIs, passed March 3t 1845.

    VOL. VIII.
    BOSTON: LITTLE, BROWN AND COMPANY.
    1867.
    PROVISIONAL ARTICLES

    Between the United States of America, and his Brztannic Majesty.

    (a) ARTICLES
    Nov. 30,1782.
    Agreed upon, by and between Richard Oswald, Esquire, the Commissioner of His Britannic Majesty,Jor treating oj Peace with the Commissioners of the United Stales of America, in Behalj if Itis said Majesty, on the one Part, and John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Joltn Jay, and Henry Laurens, Jour if tlte Commissioners oj tlte said States, for treating of Peace with tlte Commissioner of His said Majesty, on their Behalf, on the otlter Part, to be inserted in, and to constitute the Treaty of Peace, proposed to be concluded between tlte Crown of Great-Britain and tlte said United States; but which Treaty is not to be concluded untill Terms of a Peace shall be agreed upon between Great-Britain and France; and His Britannic lJfajesty shall be ready tq conclude such Treaty accordingly. WHEREAS reciprocal advantages and mutual convenience are found by experience to form the only permanent foundation of peace and friend- (a) The Treaties and Conventions between the United States and Great Britain have been: Articles agreed upon, by and between Richard Oswald, Esquire, the Commissioner of His Britannic Majesty, for trenting of peace with the Commissioners of the United States of America, in behalf of his said Majesty, on the one part, and John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and Henry Laurens, four of the Commissioners of the said States, for treating of peace with the Commissioner of his said Majesty, on their behalf, on the other part, to be inserted in, and to constitute the Treaty of Peace, proposed to be concluded between the Crown of Great Britain and the said United States; but which Treaty is not to be conclud"-d until terms of peace shall be agreed upon between Great Britain and France; and His Britannic Majesty shall be ready to conclude such Treaty accordingly. Done at Paris, November 30, 1782. Armistice, declaring a cessation of hostilities between the United States and Great Britain. Versailles. J nnuary 20, 1783; post, 5S. Definitive Treaty of Peace between the United States of America and his Britannic Majesty. Done at Paris, September 3. 1783; post, SO. Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation between his Britannic Majesty and the United States of America by their President. with the advice and consent of the Senate. November 19,1794; post, 116. Additional article. Done at Philadelphia, May 4, 1796; post, 130. Second explanatory article. Done at London the 15th March, 1798; post, 131. Convention between the United States and Great Britain. Done at London, January 8,180-2; post,196. Treaty of Peace and Amity between his Britannic Majesty and the United States. Negotiated at Ghent, December 24, 1814. Ratified, February 17, 1815; post, 218. A convention to regulate commerce between the Territories of the United States and his Britannic Majesty. London, J lily 3, 1815; post, 228. Arrangement limiting the number of American and British vessels of war to be maintained on the Lukos. Washitwton, April, 1817; post, 231. Conventioll with Great Britain. October 20, 1818; post, 218. C . 0 P b D S P 30 June onventlOn at ,.,t. eters urg. one at t. etersburg, - day of --' 1822; post, 282. 12 July, . Convention awarding the amount of indemnification under the St. Petersburg Convention. November 13, 1826; post, 344. Convention regulating the reference between the United States and Great Britain on the settlement of the hou~dary line ~escribed in ~h.e fifth article of th~ Treaty of Ghent. September 29, 1827; post, 362. ConventIOn connnlllng the prOVISIOn of tbe thIrd article of the convention of the twentieth of October 1818. AU~·,"t r;. 1827; post,3GO. ' Renewal of the commercial convention of thi~d July, 1815. August 6,1827; post,3Gl. Treaty between thA Umted States of Amenea and Great Britain. Washington, August 9,1842 post, 5i2. And sec Vol. ix. Stat. at Large. (54)
    PROVISIONAL ARTICLES WITH GREAT BRITAIN. 1782, ship between states: it is agreed to form the articles of the proposed treaty, on such principles of liberal equity and reciprocity, as that partial advantages (those seeds of discord) being excluded, such a beneficial and satisfactory intercourse between the two countries may be established, as to promise and secure to both perpetual peace and harmony.

    ARTICLE I.
    His Britannic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, viz. New-Hampshire, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pensylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgia, to be free, sovereign and independent States; that he treats with them as such; and for himself, his heirs and successors, relinquishes all claims to the gouvernment, propriety and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof. And that all disputes which might arise in future, on the subject of the boundaries of the said United States, may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are, and shall be their boundaries, viz.

    ARTICLE II.
    55 United State. acknowledged to be free, so- vereign and in dependent From the north-west angle of Nova-Scotia, viz. that angle which is Boundaries formed by a line, drawn due north from the source of St. Croix river to establishea, the Highlands; along the Highlands which divide those rivers, that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic ocean, to the northwestern most head of Connecticut river, thence down along the middle of that river, to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude; from thence, by a line due west on said latitude, untill it strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of said river into lake Ontario, through the middle of said lake untill it strikes the communication by water between that lake and lake Erie; thence along the middle of said communication into lake Erie, through the middle of said lake untill it arrives at the water-communication between that lake and lake Huron; thence along the middle of said water-communication into the lake Huron; thence through the middle of said lake to the water-communication between that lake and lake Superior; thence through lake Superior northward of the isles Royal and Phelippeaux, to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of said Long Lake, and the water-communication between it and the Lake of the Woods, to the said Lake of the Woods; thence through the said lake to the most north-western point thereof, and from thence on a due west course to the river Missisippi; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the said river Missisippi until! it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of north latitude. South by a line to be drawn due east from the determination of the line last mentioned, in the latitude of thirty-one degrees north of the Equator, to the middle of the river Apalachicola or Catahouchi; thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint river; thence strait to the head of St. Mary'S river; and thence down along the middle of St. Mary's river to the Atlantic ocean. East by a line to be drawn along the middle of the river St. Croix, from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its source, and from its source directly north to the aforesaid Highlands which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic ocean, from those which fall into the river St. Laurence; comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova-Scotia on the one part, and EastFlorida on the other, shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic ocean; excepting such islands as now are, or heretofore have oeen within the limits of the said province of Nova-Scotia. 56 PROVISIONAL ARTICLES WITH GREAT BRITAIN. 1782-

    ARTICLE III.
    Rightoffishe. It is agreed that the people of the United States. shall continue to ty secured. enjoy unmolested the right to take fish of every kmd or: the Grand Bank and on all the other banks of Newfoundland; also III the gulph of St: Lawrence, and at all other places in the sea, where the inhabitants of both countries used at anytime heretofore to fish; and also that the inhabitants of the United States shall have libert.y to take fish of every kind on such part of the coast of Newfoundland as. British fishermen shall use (but not to dry or cure the same on that Island); and also on the coasts, bays and creeks of all other ~f his Britannic Majesty's dominions in America; and that the Amencan fishermen shall have liberty.to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled bays, harbours and creeks of Nova-Scotia, Magdalen islands, and Labrador, so long as the same shall remain ~nsettled; but so soon as the. same or either of them shall be settled, It shall not be lawful for the saId fishermen to dry or cure fish at such settlement, without a previous agreement for that purpose with the inhabitants, proprietors or possessors of the ground. Debts to be paid. Congress to recommend to the states restitution of confiscated estates. No further confiscations or prosecutions.

    ARTICLE IV.
    It is agreed that creditors on either side, shall meet with no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money, of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted.

    ARTICLE V.
    It is agreed that the Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the legislatures of the respective states, to provide for the restitution of all estates, rights and properties, which have been confiscated, belonging to real British subjects, and also of the estates, rights and properties of persons resident in districts in the possession of his Majesty's arms, and who have not borne arms against the said United States. And that persons of any other description shaH have free liberty to go to any part or parts of any of the thirteen United States, and therein to remain twelve months, ~nmolested in their endeavours to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights and properties, as may have been confiscated; and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states a reconsideration and revision of all acts or laws re!Yarding the premises, so as to render the said laws or acts perfectly"consistent, not only with justice and equity, but with that spirit of conciliation, which on the return of the blessings of peace should universaly prevail. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several slates, that the estates, rights and properties of such last mentioned persons, shaH be restored to them, they refunding to any persons who may be now in possession, the bona fide price (where any has been given) which such persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said lands, rights and properties, since the confiscation. And it is acrreed, that all persons who have any interest in confiscated lands, eith~r by debts, marriage settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution of their just rights.

    ARTICLE VI. .
    That there shall b~ no future confiscations made, nor any prosecutIOns co,mmenced agamst any person or persons for, or by reason of the part whIch he or they may have taken in the present war; and that no p~rson shall ?n that account, suffer any future loss or damage, either ill hiS person. liberty or property, and that those who may be in confinement .on slIch cha!,ges, a.t the time of the ratification of the treaty in Amenca, shall b,e Immediately set at liberty, and the prosecutions so commenced he disooutinued.

    PROVISIONAL ARTICLES \VITII GREAT BRITAIN. 178~.

    AR TICLE VII.
    There shall be a firm and perpetual peace between his Britannic Majesty and the said States, and between the subjects of the one and the citizens of the other, wherefore all hostilities both by sea and land shall then immediately cease: all prisoners on both sides shall be set at liberty, and his Britannic Majesty shall with all convenient speed, and without causing any destruction, or carrying away any negroes or other property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his armies, garrisons and fleets from the said United States, and from every port, place and harbour within the same; leaving in all fortifications the American "lrtillery that may be therein; and shall also order and cause all archives, records, deeds and papers, belonging to any of the said states, or their citizens, which in the course of the war may have fallen into the hands of his officers, to be forthwith restored and delivered to the proper states and persons to whom they belong.

    ARTICLE VIII.
    The navigation of the river Missisippi, from its source to the ocean, shall for ever remain free and open to the subjects of Great-Britain, and the citizens of the United States.

    ARTICLE IX.
    In case it should so happen that any place or territory belonging to Great-Britain or to the United States, should be conquered by the arms of either from the other, before the arrival of these articles in America, it is agreed, that the same shall be restored without difficulty, and without requiring any compensation. Done at Paris, the thirtieth day of November, in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two. RICHARD OSWALD, JOHN ADAMS, B. FRANKLIN. JOHN JAY, HENRY LAURENS, CALEB WHITEFOORD, Secretary (L. s.~ (L. s. (L. S. (L. s.) (s. s.) Witness, to tl!e British Commission. W. T. FRANKLIN, Secretary to tlte American Commission. SEPARATE ARTICLE. It is hereby understood and agreed, that in case Great Britain, at the conclusion of the present war, shall recover, or be put in possession of West Florida, the line of north boundary between the said province and the United States shall be a line drawn from the mouth of the river Yassous, where it unites with the Mississippi, due east, to the river Apalachicola. Done at. Paris, the thirtieth day of November, in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two. RICHARD OSWALD, JOHN ADAMS, B. FRANKLIN, JOHN JAY, HENRY LAURENS, CALEB WHITEFOORD, Secrdary (L. s.) (L. s.) (L. s.) (L. s.) (L. s.) Attest, to tlte Britislt Commission. W. T. FRANKLIN, SI:cretar.'IJ to the American Commission. A truo copy, examined and compared with the original hy B. FRANKUN. Passy, December 4, 1782. YOLo Ylll. 8 57 Hostilities to cease, and British armies to be withdrawn.
    Navigation of the Mississippi to be free to both nations. Conquests before arrival of these articles in America to be restored. Jan. 20, 1783. Ante, 54. ARMISTICE Declaring a cessat'lOn if hostilities between the United States and Great-Britain. WE, the undersigned Ministers ~lenipotentiary o~ the United Sta.te~ of North-America, having received from Mr. Fltz Herbert, MlIllster Plenipotentiary of his Britannic ;Majesty, a decla.ratio~, rela.tive to a suspension of arms, to be estabhshed between hIs saId Majesty and the said States, the tenor whereof is as follows: WHEREAS the preliminary articles agreed upon and signed this day, between his Majesty the King of Great-Britain and his Majesty the most Christian King on the one part, and likewise between his said Britannic Majesty and his Catholic Majesty on the other part, contain the stipulation of a cessation of hostilities between those three powers, which is to take place after the exchange of the ratifications of the said preliminary articles: AND WHEREAS, by the provisional treaty signed on the thirtieth day of November last, between his Britannic Majesty and the United States of North-America, it hath been stipulated, that that treaty should take effect as soon as peace should be established between the said crowns: The undersigned Minister Plenipotentiary of his Britannic Majesty, does declare, in the name and by the express order of the King, his master, that the said United States of North-America, their supjects and their possessions, shall be comprehended in the abovementioned suspension of arms, and that, in consequence, they shall enjoy the benefit of the cessation of hostilities, at the same epochs. and in the same manner as the three crowns above mentioned, their subjects, and their respective possessions; the whole upon condition, that on the part and in the name of the said United States of North-America, a similar declaration shall be delivered expressly, declaring their assent to the present suspension of arms, and containing the assurance of the most perfect reciprocity on their part. In faith whereof, we, the Minister Plenipotentiary of his Britannic Majesty, have signed the present declaration, and have caused the seal of our arms to be thereto affixed. Versailles, 20tlt January, 1783. (Signed) (L. s.)

    ALLEYNE FITZ HERBERT. HAVE, in the name of the said United States of North-America and by virtue of tl~e powers with which they have vested us, accepted the above decl.aratIon, do by these prese?ts merely and simply accept it, and do reciprocally declare that the said States shall cause all hostilities to cease against his Britannic Majesty, his subjects and his possessions, at the terms. a~d e~ochs ~greed upo~ between his said Majesty the King of Great-BntaJll, Ills Majesty the KInO' of France and his Majesty the Khing 0lf Spain, so, and in the same m~nner, as ha; been agreed between t OBe t tree crowns, and to produce the same effects. In faith whereof, we, the Ministers Plenipotentiary of the United (58) Sept. 3, 1783.

    DEFINITIVE TREATY OF PEACE Between the United States of America and his Britannic Majesty. (a) In the name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity. IT having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the hearts of the most serene and most potent Prince GEORGE the Third, by the Grace of God King of Great-Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith Duke of Brunswick and Lunebourg, Arch-Treasurer and Prince Elect~r of the Holy Roman Empire, &c. and of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, to forget all past misunderstandings and differences that have unhappily interrupted the good correspondence and friendship which they mutually wish to restore j and to establish such a beneficial and satisfactory intercourse between the two countries, upon the ground of reciprocal advantages and mutual convenience, as may promote and (a) The decisions of the Courts of the United States in cases arising under the Definitive Treaty of Peace with Great Britain of September 3, 1783, have been: The fifth article of the treaty of peace of 1783, between the United States and Great Britain, conclud· ing with this clause: .. And it is agreed, that all persons who have any interest in confiscated lands, either by debts, marriage settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prose. cution of their just rights;" applies to those cases where an actual confiscation has taken place; and stipulates, that in such cases. the interest of all persons having a lien upon such lands shall be preserved. That clause of the treaty preserved the lien of a mortgagee of confiscated lands. which, at the time of the treaty, remained unsold. Higginson v. Mein. 4 Cranch. 415; 2 Condo Rep. 155. The treaties with Great Britain, of 1783 and 1794, onlYlrovide for titles existing at the time those treaties were made, and not for titles subsequently acquire. Actual possession of property is not ne· ce98ary to give the party the benefit of the treaty. Blight's Lessee V. Rochester, 7 Wheat. 535; 5 Condo Rep. 335. Where J. D., an alien and British subject, came into the United States subsequent to the treat! of 1783. and, before the treaty of 1794 was signed, died seised .of lands, it was held that the title 0 his heirs to the land was not protected by the treaty of 1794. ibid. Thomas Scott, a native of South Carolina, died in 1782. intestate, seised of land on James Island, baving two daughters. Ann and Sarah, both born in South Carolina before the declaration of independ- ence. Sarah married D. P. a citizen of South Carolina, and died in 1802, entitled to one half of the cstate. The British took/ossession of James Island and Charleston in February and May, 1780; and in 1781 Ann Scott marrie Joseph Shanks, a British officer; and at the evacuation of Charleston in 1782, she went to England with her husband, where she remained until her death in 1801. She left five children, born in England. They claimed the other moiety of the real estate of Thomas Scott, in right of their mother, under the ninth article of the treaty of peace between this country and Great Britain of the 19th of November, 1794. Held, that they were entitled to recover and hold the same. Shanks et aZ. v. Dupont et al. 3 Peters. 242. All British born subjects, whose allegiance Great Britain has never renounced, ought, upon general principles of interpretation, to be held within the intent, as they certainly are within the words. of the treaty of 1794. Ibid. 250. The treaty of 1783, acted upon the state of things as it existed at that period. It took the actual state of things as its basis. All those, whether natives or otherwise. who then adhered to the American states. were virtually absolved from all allegiance to the British crown; all those who then adhered to the Bri· tish crown were deemed and held subjects of that crown. The treaty of peace was a treaty operating between states and the inhabitants thereof. Ibid. 274. The several states which compose this Union, so far at least as regarded their municipal regulations, became entitled, from the time when they declared themselves independent, to all the rights and powers of sovereign states; and did not derive them from concessions of the British king. The treaty of peace contains a recognition of the independence of these states, not a grant of it. The laws of the several state governmen~s, passed after the declaration of independence, were the laws of sovereign states, and as such were obligatory upon the people of each state. 111' Ilvaine v. Coxe's Lessee, 4 Cranch, 209; 2 Condo Rep. 86. The property of British corporations, in this country. is protected by the sixth article of the treaty of peace of 1783. in the same manner as those of natural persons; and their title, thus protected, is con· fir~ed ~y the ninth article of the treaty of li94, so that it could not be forfeited by any intermediate legislative act, or other proceeding for the defect of alienage. The Society for Propagating the Go .• pel, 4-c. V. New Haven. 8 Wheat. 464; 5 Condo Rep. 489. See a180, post, p. 116, n. (80)

    DEFlNITIVE TREATY WITH GREAT BRITAIN. 1783
    s~cure to both perpetual peace and harmony: And having for this desIrable end, already laid the foundation of peace and reconciliation, by the provisional articles, signed at Paris, on the thirtieth of November, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two, by the commissioners empowered on each part, which articles were agreed to be inserted in, and to constitute the treaty of peace proposed to be concluded between the crown of Great-Britain and the said United States, but which treaty was not to be concluded until terms of peace should be agreed upon between Great-Britain and France, and his Britannic Majesty should be ready to conclude such treaty accordingly; and the treaty between Great-Britain and France, having since been concluded, his Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, in order to carry into full effect the provisional articles abovementioned, according to the tenor thereof, have constituted and appointed",that is to say, His Britannic Majesty on his part, David Hartley, Esquire, Member of the Parliament of Great-Britain; and the said United States on their part, John Adams, Esquire, late a Commissioner of the United States of America at the Court of Versailles, late Dclegate in Congress from the state of Massachusetts, and Chief Justice of the said state, and Minister Plenipotentiary of the said United States to their High Mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands; Benjamin Franklin, Esquire, late Delegate in Congress from the state of Pennsylvania, President of the Convention of the said state, and Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States of America at the Court of Versailles; John Jay, Esquire, late President of Congress, and Chief Justice of the state of NewYork, and Minister Plenipotentiary from the said United States at the Court of Madrid, to be the Plenipotentiaries for the concluding and signing the present definitive treaty; who after having reciprocally communicated their respective full powers, have agreed upon and confirmed the following articles.

    ARTICLE I.
    His Britannic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, viz. New-Hampshire, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania. Delaware, Maryland, Virginia. North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgia, to be free, sovereign and independent States; that he treats with them as such; and for himself, his heirs and successors, relinquishes all claims to the government, propriety and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof.

    ARTICLE II.
    And that all disputes which might arise in future, on the subject of the boundaries of the said United States, may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are, and shall be their boundaries, viz. From the north-west ano-Ie of Nova-Scotia, viz. that angle which is formed by a line, drawn due north from the source of St. Croix river to the Highlands; along the said Highlands which divide those rivers, that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic ocean, to the northwestern most head of Connecticut river, thence down along the middle of that river, to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude; from thence, by a line due west on said latitude, until it strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of said river into lake Ontario, through the middle of said lake until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and lake Erie; thence along the middle of said communication into lake Erie, through the middle of said lake until it arrives at the water-communication between that lake and lake Huron; thence along the middle of said water-communication into the lake Huron j thence through the middle of said lake to the water-communication between that lake and lake Superior: thence through lake Superior northward of the isles Roval VOL. VIII. 11 ~I United States acknowledged to be indepen. dent. Boundaries established. Post. p. 572. Right of fishery secured. Debts to be paid. Congress to recommend to the states restitution of confiscated estates.
    DEFINITIVE TREATY WITH GREAT BRITAIN. 1783.
    and Phelipeaux to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of said Long Lake, and the water-communication between it and the Lake ?f the Woods to the said Lake of the Woods; thence through the saId lake to the'most north-western point thereof, and from thence on a due west course to the river Missisippi; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the said river Missisippi until it shall intersect the northernmost part of ' the thirty-first degree of. no~th latitude.. South by a line to be drawn due east from the determmatJOn of the hne last mentioned, in the latitude of thirty-one degrees north of the Equator, to the middle of the river Apalachicola or Catahouche; thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint river; thence strait to the head of St. Mary's river; and thence down along the middle of St. Mary's river to the AtJantic ocean. East by a line to be drawn along the middle of the river St. Croix, from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its source, and from its source directly north to the aforesaid Highlands which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic ocean, from those which fall into the river St. Lawrence; comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova-Scotia on the one part, and EastFlorida on the other, shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic ocean; excepting such islands as now are, or heretofore have been within the limits of the said province of Nova-Scotia.

    ARTICLE III.
    It is agreed that the people of the United States shaH continue to enjoy unmolested the right to take fish of every kind on the Grand Bank, and on all the other banks of Newfoundland; also in the gulph of St. Lawrence, and at all other places in the sea, where the inhabitants of both countries used at any time heretofore to fish; and also that the inhabitants of the United States shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on such part of the coast of Newfoundland as British fishermen shall use (but not to dry or cure the same on that island); and also on the coasts, bays and creeks of all other of his Britannic Majesty's dominions in America; and that the American fishermen shall have liberty to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled bays, harbours and creeks of Nova-Scotia, Magdalen islands, and Labrador, so long as the same shall remain unsettled; but so soon as the same or either of them shall be settled, it shall not be lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish at such settlement, without a previous agreement for that purpose with the inhabitants, proprietors or possessors of the ground.

    ARTICLE IV.
    It is agreed that creditors Oil either side, shall meet with no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money, of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted.

    ARTICLE V.
    ~t is agreed that the Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the legIslatures of the respective states, to provide for the restitution of all estates, ri~~ts und. properties, which have been confiscated, belonging to real Bnt!sh sU.bjec.ts, ~nd .also of the es~ates, rights and properties of persons resIdent III dlstncts III the possessIOn of his Majesty's arms, and who have not borne arms against the said United States. And that persons of any other descr,iption shall have free liberty to go to any part or parts of any of the tlllrteen United States, and therein to remain twelve months, unmolested in their endeavours to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights and properties, as may have been confi~cated; and that Congress shall ,,]so earnestly recommend to the sever:d states a re.cmnsideration and revision of all acts Of hws rccrardin;:; the premises, so as to mnder the s:lid law~ Of acts perfl,r,tI./c''';.

    DEFINITIVE TREATY WITH GREAT BRITAIN. 1783.
    sistent, not only with justice and equity, but with that spirit of concilia~ tion, which on the return of the blessings of peace should universally prevail. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states, that the estates, rights and properties of such last mentioned persons, shall be restored to them, they refunding to any persons who may be now in possession, the bona fide price (where any has been given) which such persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said lands, rights or properties, since the confiscation. And it is agreed, that all persons who have any interest in confiscated lands, either by debts, marriage settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution of their just rights.

    ARTICLE VI.
    That there shall be no future confiscations made, nor any prosecutions commenced against any person or persons for, or by reason of the part which he or they may have taken in the present war; and that no person shall, on that account, suffer any future loss or damage, either in his person, liberty or property; and that those who may be in confinement on such charges, at the time of the ratification df the treaty in America, shall be immediately set at liberty, and the prosecutions so commenced be discontinued. '

    ARTICI.,E VII.
    There shall be a firm and perpetual peace between his Britannic Majesty and the said States, and between the subjects of the one and the citizens of the other, wherefore all hostilities, both by sea and land, shall from henceforth cease: all prisoners on both sides shall be set at liberty, and his Britannic Majesty shall, with all convenient speed, and without causing any destruction, or carrying away any negroes or other property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his armies, garrisons and fleets from the said United States, and from every post, place and harbour within the same; leaving in all fortifications the American artillery that may be therein; and shall also order and cause all archives, records, deeds and papers, belonging to any of the said states, or their citizens, which in the course of the war may have fallen into the hands of his officers, to be forthwith restored and delivered to the proper states and persons to whom they belong.

    ARTICLE VIII.
    The navigation of the river Missisippi, from its source to the ocean, shall for ever remain free and open to the subjects of Great-Britain~ and the citizens of the United States.

    ARTICLE IX.
    In case it should so happen that any place or territory belonging to Great-Britain or to the United States, should have been conquered by the arms of either from the other, before the arrival of the said provisional articles in America, it is agreed, that the same shall be restored without difficulty, and without requiring any compensation.

    ARTICLE X.
    The solemn ratifications of the present treaty, expedited in good and due form, shall be exchanged between the contracting parties, in the space of six months, or sooner if possible, to be computed from the day of the signature of the present treaty.

    In witness whereof, we the undersigned,
    their Ministers Plenipotentiary,
    have in their name and in virtue of our full powers,
    signed with our hands the present definitive
    !roaty,
    and caused the seals of our arms to be affixed thereto.

    Done at Paris,

    this third day of September,
    in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty.three.

    D. HARTLEY.
    JOHN ADAMS,
    B. FRANKLIN,
    JOHN .fAY.
    (L. s.) (L. s.) (L. s.) (I .. 't.)
    83 No further confiscations 01 prosecutions.
    Hostilities to cease, and British armies to be withdrawn.
    N avi~ation of the MIssissippi to be free to beth nations.
    Conquests be fore arrival of these articles ill America to be restored.
    Ratification.​
     
    Last edited: Sep 13, 2016
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